Fountains for the garden: varieties of forms and decor
Decorative reservoirs have long ceased to be the prerogative of wealthy people only. Today, everyone has the power to refine their plot with the help of a miniature fountain or pond. In the stores you can find both ready-made solutions and the necessary details for creating your own exclusive device.
The main goal of any fountain structure (park, summer cottage, indoor) is to make the water move. However, simply the movement will not suit us, of course. Water streams should create a beautiful attractive picture, managed and guided. The barely noticeable flow in the pond, the spring breaking through the stones, the chaotic intertwining of the jets in some compositions - all this is subject to a complex system of nozzles and pumps.
When designing a street fountain for a country house, you should consider what source of water will be used. If it is natural, for example, a lake or a river, then the amount of water will be sufficient to create powerful multi-stage structures. If there are none, then the system is connected to the water supply network. The functionality of the fountain in this case, respectively, is limited.
The choice of the fountain for the dacha depends on the size of the territory, features of the relief, pump power, the desired water pattern, materials, and the general concept of a winter or summer garden.
All types of fountain devices combine several basic elements: tank, pump and nozzle (nozzle). Bowls can be purchased ready-made from metal, plastic, stone, or build them right in the ground, giving the desired shape.
Next, you need to decide on the water picture and based on this, select the nozzles or a combination of them. Well, do not forget about the driving force of any fountain - the pump.
They are of two types - submersible and surface. The first, as the name implies, is installed under water. Its installation is simple, but for maintenance it is necessary to constantly catch it, which is not very convenient. The second is located outside the water structure, due to which it is easily accessible for repair.
All other elements of the design are designed to decorate and facilitate the management and care of the fountain. For example, the system of cleaning and filtering water will not allow the pond to bloom and turn into a swamp.
Lighting already refers to the decor. The main secret of the fabulous evening lights is the selection of the most vivid elements of the composition and the shading of the rest. In the dancing fountains loved by all, the completeness of the composition is achieved precisely with high-quality lighting.
Despite the constant development and complication of fountain systems, they can still be classified according to several principles.
According to the general architectural decision, it is customary to single out:
- A group whose composition is based on water flows.
- The following view combines options where the main role is given to architectural elements. Water in this case is secondary.
- The third group is a harmonious ensemble of water and artistic parts.
By location are distinguished:
- In a large pond of natural or artificial origin.
- On land in a small decorative pond.
- Indoors: rooms, winter gardens, loggias.
According to the form of water supply:
- Most common jet fountain. A vertical thin stream is formed by nozzles in the form of a tapered nozzle. Its height depends on the water pressure.
- "Bell". The nozzle is a tube with a length of 0.5-1.5 m, which ends with two spherical disks arranged on top of each other. The water leaving under pressure from the gap between them takes the form of a dome.
- Hemispheric Fountain consists of mini bell nozzles. They are fixed at an angle so that the flow of each of them forms part of the wall of the hemisphere.
- "Tulip". As in the previous two versions, the flow is regulated by two discs with the only difference that the water does not come out horizontally, but rises upwards at an angle of 30-40 degrees. At the same time, a funnel expanding towards the top is formed in the center, and the water film falls in a circle, resembling a flower.
- "Fish tail". His drawing has common features with a tulip, however the flow of water does not form a solid wall, but consists of separate jets. This effect gives several nozzles located in the center in the form of a fan at an angle of 30-40 degrees.
- "Tiffany" - combining the types of "bell" and "fishtail". A fascinating picture is achieved due to the difference in pressure.As a rule, it is more in the “bell” node.
- Figure fountain type "ring" provides a pipe, closed in a circle, in which at an equal distance there are holes for water outlet, into which jet nozzles are installed.
- A single sprayer is similar in design to "fish tail", but with the difference that the water comes out of a larger number of nozzles at a smaller angle (15-20 degrees). Its more complex variation is the longline nebulizer. The desired effect is achieved by increasing the water pressure from the extreme to the central holes. If there is no desire to “play” with pressure, then multi-tiered spraying is obtained due to nozzles of different diameters.
- Fountain type "Spinner" creates a feeling of dancing jets. Spray guns are mounted on a rotating base. When it moves, initially vertical jets twist into intricate spirals. The main subtlety is to find a balance between the pressure of water and the speed of rotation.
- You can often meet fountains keys and key stones. In the first case, the nozzle is installed under the water column. To create a second species in a natural stone, a hole is made with a diameter of 2.5 cm, where a hose is introduced.Adjusting the pressure allows you to achieve the height of the column, necessary for the natural imitation of a spring, beating from the bottom or from the hole in the stone.
- Fountain waterfall, unlike other species, does not depend on the type of nozzles or pressure in the system. Water does not tend upward in the form of jets, but flows in a multi-layered flow along the base. Therefore, the nature of the mini-waterfall will depend on the height and relief of the base.
The above types of fountains are basic. In their pure form, they can be found in the interiors or in small areas. But their various combinations make up the most impressive water compositions. For example, the famous Pyramid fountain in Peterhof consists of 505 jet nozzles. Due to the pressure difference in them, the water jets rise to different heights, forming a pyramid.
If we talk about the forms of fountains, here the options are limited only by fantasy and the general style of the garden. Classics of the genre are hemispherical bowls, decorated with various sculptures. Lion heads and cupids will appeal to lovers of aristocratic luxury.
Simple and concise forms would be an excellent option if the pretentiousness and pomp are not held in high esteem.Well, stand out in the total mass of lovers of water will help options of unusual shape.
The choice of the size of the fountain in the first place depends on the installation site. Accordingly, models no more than 3 m in diameter are suitable for a garden or a dacha. Parks and squares are able to accommodate pools of 4 meters, but the interior options will be quite miniature.
It must be borne in mind and the surrounding space.
A small fountain in the spacious square will be lost (unless it is conceived by the general concept of a garden), and large models in a small courtyard will look ridiculous.
It is very important to consider the correspondence of the height and the pattern of the jets to the diameter of the bowl. And the point is not only that water should not spill out, but also in a harmonious way. If the fountain device is purchased for the garden, the size will depend on the plants available, especially if they are not too fond of moisture. From these types of fountain must be installed away, as well as from the walls of the house and other non-waterproof decor.
On sale you can find ready-made fountain installations, which include a bowl and are fully equipped with equipment.All that needs to be done is to choose the place of the future fountain and connect it according to the instructions, having previously provided communications there. To do this, most likely need pipes and electrical cable.
If ready-made solutions are not satisfied, then in addition to pipes with cable, you should stock up on cement, sand, rubble and patience. The presence of a waterproof container of the desired volume will accelerate the work on the arrangement of the bowl. Otherwise, the tank will be poured with concrete and here you need to take care of good waterproofing. You can follow the example of craftsmen who make the base of the tires and instead of concreting the floor is covered with dense polyethylene. The only disadvantage of this solution is the limited service life of the film (up to a year).
If the whole composition or individual elements of the decor are stone, then they need to be prepared in advance. A good option are various imitations of stone, they are resistant to moisture and last longer.
As for the issue of decoration, then the main adviser is fantasy and taste, well, a little wallet.
But a few points still worth noting:
- Polyresin models do not require additional decorations; they are, as a rule, self-sufficient and laconic.
- Stones for decoration fit any - small cobblestones, pebbles, granite. They can equip the curb around the perimeter of the bowl. It looks very natural rim of large raw stones, which grow moss, fern.
- To decorative pile of stones does not look ridiculous, you should use no more than two different species.
- Water and coastal plants will add completeness and naturalness to the structure.
- If the project is designed livestock in the form of fish, it is important to ensure that the selected breed quietly tolerates the sound of water.
- Sculptures and decorative grottoes and caves are another way to aesthetically equip a dacha reservoir. And if the grottoes look quite natural, then here with the caves you need to know when to stop.
- Ceramic tiles as cladding allows you to create bright individual ornaments and paintings. This fountain perfectly complements the garden in the Mediterranean style.
What to consider when choosing?
So, the data is collected, and the hands are itching to get down to business, but first you should systematize the knowledge gained:
- The size of the fountain should be optimal in terms of its purpose, area of the site, the surrounding vegetation and buildings.
- Matching the size of the bowl with the height and power of the water flows will avoid flooding the surrounding soil.
- Pump power depends on the type of fountain. The more power, the higher the jet.
- Choosing nozzles, it is better to pay attention to the material, and not to the price. Cheap plastic models are short-lived. Closer to the ideal samples of steel, brass or aluminum bronze.
- It is important to consider such an indicator as wind resistance of the nozzle. Otherwise, the conceived picture will please only in calm.
How to do?
A master class with step-by-step instructions on the creation of various types of fountains is the topic of a separate article and even a series.
We will focus on several main stages:
- Any construction - from the fountain to the skyscraper, begins with the design. At this stage, design and construction projects are being developed. Careful processing of all the details - from the choice of location to the final decorative finish, will facilitate and speed up the installation.
- The next step - the selection of equipment and materials, flows smoothly from the previous one.
Further, in fact, construction work:
- Preparation of the base. The easiest way to work at home is film technology. You can also dig into the ground a rigid form of plastic or metal. Well, the most time-consuming - concrete bowl;
- Installation of sprayers;
- Installing the driving force - the pump. There is not much to choose here - either submersible or “dry.” For the needs of a small cottage construction, the first one is perfectly suited
- Setting the backlight;
- Filling with water and checking the operation of the system;
Build a fountain - this is half the battle. Any structure, regardless of the type and system needs careful maintenance. It is important to constantly maintain the desired water level to avoid equipment malfunctions and breakdowns. This is especially true for models with a closed system, since the water in them evaporates naturally.
The blooming of water can kill completely the beauty of the structure, and the smell that is emitted at the same time is not pleasant.
There are several options for dealing with the problem:
- regular do-it-yourself cleaning with water change;
- installation of multi-stage filters;
- chemical cleaning, on it is unsafe flora and fauna (if they exist);
- biological cleaning - aquatic plants, crayfish and some species of fish, microorganisms.
Regular cleaning of pumps, nozzles and other equipment will significantly prolong their life. In winter, the water is completely drained, the equipment is dismantled, and the fountain is covered with a protective film. If cracks are found, the surface is treated with waterproofing materials.
Beautiful landscape designs
Any landscape, decorated with a fountain, will acquire a highlight, whether it is a charming seating area in a small courtyard or more ambitious compositions.
See the video for tips on installing a fountain.